Paper vs digital: Are there benefits to paper textbooks that schools are missing?

As many schools across the county are turning to e-readers and sometimes exclusively online textbooks, I am wondering if they are missing some learning benefits of paper textbooks for students.

From USA Today about a school in New York that has converted to an entirely digital library system:

“That backpack is going to be much lighter this year. Stepinac in White Plains has become one of the first high schools in the country to drop all textbooks like dead weight and replace them with a ‘digital library.’ When students started classes Monday, they were zipping to an app or website on their tablet or laptop and had instant access to all 40 texts in the Stepinac curriculum, not to mention all sorts of note-taking, highlighting and interactive features.” …

“Stepinac officials worked for a year with Pearson, the education company that has long dominated the textbook world, to design and create a unique digital library that is bound to be studied by other private and public schools.”…

“Students can search for what they want, just like with Google, so now we can teach them to interpret and analyze the information,” said Matthew Hogan, social studies chairperson.”…

“A teacher can show a page from a digital book on an interactive whiteboard at the front of the class or send students a link to a particular math problem, with the teacher’s notes added in.”

There is no doubt the digital textbooks are cheaper. Students at the Stepinac school paid $700 for textbooks previously and this year only $150 for access to the digital library. However,  is this the best way for students to learn? Are there learning advantages to paper versus screens?

I am on computers all day long reading, writing and analyzing information but when I really have to understand and retain something I want it on paper.

The digital media class that I teach at the local college is in theory paperless, but I do provide certain information to my students on hard copies. When I am teaching a new software program, I will post the notes online but I also hand them a paper copy so they can mark it up and fully take it in.

When I am learning something new I don’t want to toggle between screens for directions. I want to be able to looks down at a paper copy and do what I need to do on the computer. I also want to be able to mark up my paper with notes to myself.

Last spring, we were getting a new version of a textbook for the class I was teaching. We didn’t have a had copy so they said, “Oh you can get it online and prepare from that version,” and I hated it! I am used to collecting information online. I am used to working and writing online, but for the purpose of preparing lesson plans and studying I wanted a print version.

As it turns out, my instincts about how I comprehend and retain information better from paper rings true with what researchers have found.

From a 2013 article in Scientific American:

“Since at least the 1980s researchers in many different fields—including psychology, computer engineering, and library and information science—have investigated such questions in more than one hundred published studies. The matter is by no means settled. Before 1992 most studies concluded that people read slower, less accurately and less comprehensively on screens than on paper. Studies published since the early 1990s, however, have produced more inconsistent results: a slight majority has confirmed earlier conclusions, but almost as many have found few significant differences in reading speed or comprehension between paper and screens. And recent surveys suggest that although most people still prefer paper—especially when reading intensively—attitudes are changing as tablets and e-reading technology improve and reading digital books for facts and fun becomes more common. In the U.S., e-books currently make up between 15 and 20 percent of all trade book sales.”…

“Even so, evidence from laboratory experiments, polls and consumer reports indicates that modern screens and e-readers fail to adequately recreate certain tactile experiences of reading on paper that many people miss and, more importantly, prevent people from navigating long texts in an intuitive and satisfying way. In turn, such navigational difficulties may subtly inhibit reading comprehension. Compared with paper, screens may also drain more of our mental resources while we are reading and make it a little harder to remember what we read when we are done. A parallel line of research focuses on people’s attitudes toward different kinds of media. Whether they realize it or not, many people approach computers and tablets with a state of mind less conducive to learning than the one they bring to paper….”

“Beyond treating individual letters as physical objects, the human brain may also perceive a text in its entirety as a kind of physical landscape. When we read, we construct a mental representation of the text in which meaning is anchored to structure. The exact nature of such representations remains unclear, but they are likely similar to the mental maps we create of terrain—such as mountains and trails—and of man-made physical spaces, such as apartments and offices. Both anecdotally and in published studies, people report that when trying to locate a particular piece of written information they often remember where in the text it appeared. We might recall that we passed the red farmhouse near the start of the trail before we started climbing uphill through the forest; in a similar way, we remember that we read about Mr. Darcy rebuffing Elizabeth Bennett on the bottom of the left-hand page in one of the earlier chapters.”

With books you get left page and right page and eight corners on which to associate the information. Just like we navigate a map by what comes before and after, you do that with reading. But you can’t do that on an e-reader generally.

Other studies show the reading from e-readers and PDF’s don’t allow students to look forward or back or notate. The researchers found it doesn’t give them enough control over the text.

If they really want to dive in and “understand with clarity” then they want to read it on paper.

“Because of these preferences—and because getting away from multipurpose screens improves concentration—people consistently say that when they really want to dive into a text, they read it on paper. In a 2011 survey of graduate students at National Taiwan University, the majority reported browsing a few paragraphs online before printing out the whole text for more in-depth reading. A 2008 survey of millennials (people born between 1980 and the early 2000s) at Salve Regina University in Rhode Island concluded that, “when it comes to reading a book, even they prefer good, old-fashioned print”. And in a 2003 study conducted at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, nearly 80 percent of 687 surveyed students preferred to read text on paper as opposed to on a screen in order to “understand it with clarity”.

The article reports that when reading on screens people are less likely to use “metacognitive learning regulation,” which are strategies such as setting a goal and checking how well you are understanding along the way.

Researchers say it’s not just comprehension but also long-term memory and they find the e-readers make it harder.

So I really think schools should rethink completely doing away with textbooks or maybe give students options. There seems to be a lot of value in paper versus just e-readers and screens.

What do you think? What have your kids’ or students’ experiences been with digital textbooks? Do you think they concentrate or comprehend as well? Do they retain what they are reading? How do they digest and annotate the text if they need to? How should school balance the financial aspect versus the learning? Has your school switched to digital textbooks?

40 comments Add your comment

motherjanegoose

September 19th, 2013
6:22 am

I am an old fashioned paper book reader. I just got a Kindle, for my birthday, this week. I guess I will see how happy I am with it. Certainly weighs less than a hardback book…haha! I use technology but when it does not work I am really annoyed. I have been LOTS of places when I have dropped calls on my ATT phone…I85 in metro Atlanta is one…haha! Seems odd to me!

motherjanegoose

September 19th, 2013
6:23 am

What happens if the technology fails…no more dog ate my homework. Power outages can happen or internet service gets iffy. All things to consider.

Neha

September 19th, 2013
6:29 am

I disagree with the premise of your article that students will miss out by primarily using online texts. The research you have mentioned is a question over preference, not over utility or ‘learnability’.

If we’re talking about eTexts that cannot be amended, then you’re right in that students will want to print off and highlight and make notes etc. But with the advent of programs that allow you to highlight, bookmark and take notes, I think that will change. In fact, the ePlatform will allow for a smoother transition between various texts, where students will able to seemlessly source relevant sections of text to use in essays or assignments.

What you’re arguing here seems, to me, like the question of computer technology versus pen and paper. 20 odd years ago, it was hard to imagine a classroom filled with laptops rather than notepads. It’s a question of what we’re used to, not what actually benefits us. Students today will retain information that they have typed on a laptop perhaps better than they might had they written it down.

My belief is that, given 5-10 years, the findings of such research will change dramatically.

FCM

September 19th, 2013
7:30 am

I think digital like most things will take a moment to adjust. I do love my hard copy books. However, I have read on the Kindle and been fine. My oldest has the Kindle Fire for school now. It certainly keeps us from losing assignments and helps us stay organized to be more digital.

I am concerned about the cost of the books, and that not all students (including mine) have access to internet at home.

Becky

September 19th, 2013
8:03 am

I also love my old fashioned books..Guess it’s my age showing..Like FCM, I have Kindle (Fire), have read on it with no problems, but I keep going back to books..

My two are only in 5th grade and aren’t using that much work digital, so can’t really give any input to that..The boy is much more adavanced on the Kindle than the girl..She like me would rather read a paper book..

Real Life

September 19th, 2013
8:14 am

I am on the fence over this one. Neha is right about the research and that findings will be significantly different down the road. My eldest niece, who started college this year (in her mid 30s) is my voice on this one. She had a number of digital textbooks, but prefers some subjects–math and chemistry in particular–as real books. She tried digital but says something about the traditional books makes it easier for her with courses that are heavily math based. It will probably be like this for many students, that some courses are better with traditional books and others better with the digital format. For me, when I am home, I like a real book. But I travel for work frequently and for that, my Kindle and my iPad, cannot be replaced.

Young Lady

September 19th, 2013
8:16 am

“Other studies show the reading from e-readers and PDF’s don’t allow students to look forward or back or notate.”

How old are those studies? PDFs definately can let you do that (I use it at work constantly and the features are the same in Reader and Pro versions) and my Fire allows me to at least highlight (and I think it allows notation too but I don’t have really any reason to do that with enjoyment reading).

Me

September 19th, 2013
8:27 am

It will only take time to adjust for those of us not already “in tune” with a digital world. For a large number, which will only continue to grow larger, all they “know” is a digital world so I feel they aren’t the ones who will need to adjust.

DB

September 19th, 2013
8:29 am

My first thought in reading this was the comment about “pre-1992″ studies — let’s face it, before graphical user interfaces (GUI) in the 90’s, on-line reading was often a case of those lovely one-color CRT screens, which wasn’t exactly conducive to long-term perusal. :-) No wonder the results changed as the technology improved.

I read books on my Kindle app on my tablet, especially when traveling (it was wonderful in China, when I could download English-language books!) but I find having to constantly recharge is a PITA. I love, love, love that initial moment of opening a book to the first page to see what delights emerge. I love the smell of a new book, and I love the tactile sense of turning pages.

But, I suppose scholars in the early Middle Ages felt the same way about their scrolls :-)

DB

September 19th, 2013
8:31 am

@Me: I think you might be right. Sometimes, it IS hard to teach old dogs new tricks, and once the brain has learned to read a paper book (tagging pages, etc.), it may be a challenge to segue to a different style.

WitchyWoman

September 19th, 2013
8:39 am

I’m like Theresa, when I really want to learn and retain something, I have to have it in paper. I love my tablet, since I get to have all the book formats (kindle, sony, nook) on it. I am an AVID reader. Yes, many programs allow you to highlight and make notations, but it’s not the same. I guess my mind associates screens with play or leisure time, so when I have to read something for retention…it starts to wander. Also, reading large amounts of information on a screen hurts my eyes and my head….something about the lighting. I also like to be able to flip back and forth quickly to check validate different things and that IS harder on a e-reader because you have to KNOW what page you want to go back to..you put a sticky note in the spot.

I also agree that with everything else in education, they are going to find that they are going to have to keep some paper versions of a texts for students that have certain disabilities. They are also going to find that there will be kids like me and Theresa that learn better on paper.

Techmom

September 19th, 2013
8:56 am

My son’s school used digital textbooks for the past several years but more for access at home rather than in the classroom (they did have physical books in the classroom). I loved it. No dragging home books and no “I forgot” excuses. I think we have to remember that these kids grew up and are growing up in the digital age. It’s more odd for them to carry around a book than a digital device (cell or tablet).

I am not a huge fan of reading on my Kindle Fire but I have a Kindle reader and LOVE it. It’s what I primarily read from. Since it’s an older model, I even have to use a booklight with it :) I look at computer screens all day so not a fan of backlit devices when I simply want to read. They’re great for surfing the web and watching videos and such but for pure reading, I highly recommend a Kindle reader.

HB

September 19th, 2013
9:09 am

There are times (few and far between) when I find it’s easier to have a hard copy, but I think part of what kids need to learn is how they work best and when they need to print things out. And you absolutely can highlight and take notes on a tablet — I do it all the time using a PDF program that I think cost $8 or $10 when I purchased it 2 years ago.

I’d be interested to see a studying comparing how people learn on desktops/laptops vs tablets. Everything I’ve seen seems to lump all screens together, but they are very different experiences. Holding a tablet in your hands, turning pages, and making notes with your fingers instead of a keyboard are much closer to the experience of a book than reading on a screen that isn’t handheld.

DB

September 19th, 2013
9:09 am

@Techmom: One of things I like about my Kindle app on my Galaxy Tab is being able to change the background to black with white lettering. If I’m reading in bed at night, the glow from the black-on-white was sometimes pretty strong — switching it to white-on-black cut back significantly on the ambient light, and was still easy to read, especially if I upped the font a notch.

motherjanegoose

September 19th, 2013
9:21 am

Technology….I left an important message for my neighbor on her cell phone at 7:00 last night. Did not hear from her. YES she was the on her voice message. I emailed her today. She got back with me and said she never got the phone message or a call. HMMM.

Techmom

September 19th, 2013
9:31 am

@DB – I do expect tablet manufacturers to design a “reading” mode for their tablets as more and more folks turn to them for reading that will adjust the settings to make it easier on our eyes. Still doesn’t help with reading in sunlight though. Maybe one of them will make one with both screens – one on each side so you just flip it over depending on the task! Reader screen on one side and backlit/LED screen on the other. Now THAT would be cool(heavy though… and for heaven’s sake DON’T drop it)!

ATL Born and Raised

September 19th, 2013
9:34 am

I think it would be harder for those of us who grew up with physical texts to transition totally to digital. But this generation will be growing up digital from the start. I think they’ll be just fine.

HB

September 19th, 2013
9:40 am

Techmom, I completely agree about b/w readers. For just plain old reading, nothing tops black and white e-Ink. I read on an iPad because I use it for much more than that and don’t want to carry an additional device, but if reading books was my main purpose, I’d buy a b/w Nook or Kindle for <$100.

dc

September 19th, 2013
9:51 am

I think the whole premise of the article is wrong. If all the new technology is used for is to replace books, but still just present static info on a page as if it was a book, then the new tech will fail miserably, and will be a huge wasted investment.

If, however, the educators figure out how to leverage the interactive capabilities to gain a students interest, and engage them as if it was a game or movie, then it’ll be a huge win.

FCM

September 19th, 2013
10:13 am

@ dc you have a great point. There could be working models or interactive parts to re-inforce what is being taught. Now that would be pretty awesome.

Young Lady

September 19th, 2013
10:32 am

MJG- You can lose messages (both voice and text) for a variety of reasons. While it’s easy to blame the person, it’s something I deal with a lot at work. I have a large network problem around my house so when I am trying to get work done it doesn’t always arrive on time or at all if we are communicating via cellphones.

dc- Interactive textbooks are already used in some areas (science has them). There was one available for biology my last year of college. My sister used one in college as well. I don’t think they generate interest as much as make it easier to engage students and help understand key concepts they might not get from lecture or reading. Some students are visual learners and it just makes the information availabe in a more accessable format for their learning style.

How did we let it get to this?

September 19th, 2013
10:41 am

The bigger problem is not the format, but the content. Constantly using the victims of government-run education as lab rats for “new math”, “look-say” reading, Monsanto propaganda, revisionist history (especially constitutional), and the like are the bigger issue everyone should be focusing on. But then since every other level of the government bureaucracy is controlled by big business, why should anyone be surprised that the early-life propaganda machine is plagued by the same problems?

WitchyWoman

September 19th, 2013
11:03 am

@How did we let it get to this?
You are right. What is to stop the publishers from making the schools have to buy the newer product each year? That actually negates the cheaper cost. Having to pay for tech support (and they do charge for it) on a yearly basis makes the cost actually even out to about the same as paper textbooks. The electric ones just take up less space.

E-textbooks are a good concept but there are a few potential problems that will eventually have to be addressed.

Also, all students don’t have WiFi availability in their homes or the internet for that matter. What then?

Ann

September 19th, 2013
11:12 am

E-texts will not be any cheaper than books with all the contracts, suppliers, updates, consultants, etc. There is always lots of money that will change hands regardless of the method.

Ann

September 19th, 2013
11:20 am

I agree that the younger generation is much more digital, but I don’t think this is just a young vs. “old dog” preference. My 8 year old prefers to read books on paper. He loves going to the library and browsing the shelves looking at the covers and finding things to read. We are there several times a week. He likes the whole process of checking out the books and carrying a big stack out the door, excited to get started reading.

Our city library is the busiest in Fulton County. There are always quite a few kids exploring the shelves each time we are there. We also have a lot of books at home on our bookcases and he enjoys just going in the room and finding something off the shelf to explore. Having all the books and the book covers to look over sparks interest and encourages reading. While you can find and browse books electronically, with E readers only it is “out of sight, out of mind” more.

malleesmom

September 19th, 2013
11:26 am

Our district in MN is mixed; traditional books in the classroom with students also having online access for some classes. The pluses are less books to lug home which means lighter book bags (yay). One con I struggle with is the long-term impact of vision for young eyes always being in front of some sort of screen. Anyone else notice that children get glasses at younger and younger ages? Any data in increasing number of headaches among school-age children. How do we limit screen time when even textbooks are online? I too agree with previous posts wondering how much is retained traditional vs electronic media.

HB

September 19th, 2013
11:33 am

Ebooks may not be cheaper than paper, but they could be a better product for the same price. Hopefully schools would be paying for up-to-date books. If students can have up-to-date ebooks that aren’t years-old and falling part like most paper books I had in school were for roughly the same price, I’d say that’s a win.

Ann

September 19th, 2013
12:25 pm

@ malleesmom – You are right to be concerned about the eye strain with additional screen time. There is a percentage of the population that are having serious issues with LED lights on phones, computers, e-readers, etc. This lighting is very different from the CCFL bulbs used previously in screens and a portion of the population are sensitive to the lights. It is not corrected by reducing the brightness settings.

There are different theories floating about the cause and there are several symptoms that vary. The problem is not just tired eyes, but sometimes actual pain. Your eyes hurt. I have the problem and first noticed it when using my husband’s Imac. My eyes “hurt” in ways that they didn’t when using my older pc laptop. After Googling it, I found all kinds of information online about issues related to this that have increased with the switchover to LED bulbs – the bulbs that backlight the screen. This is a topic that is being explored. Some think the issue is the LED type bulb; others think it has to do with the “refresh rate” or the graphics card. There is software that you can add to your devices that removes the “blue light” in screen spectrum that some think it the problem. LED bulbs are being used now in many things and we just don’t know the full impact yet. Our eyes are very important – we should know the impact and risks before we make big changes in exposure, especially at young ages.

There are folks with eye symptoms that have not yet made the connection to the use of their phones or laptops. Here’s one thread on the topic that is eye opening to read:
https://discussions.apple.com/message/22885475?ac_cid=tw123456#22885475

cool and collected

September 19th, 2013
2:08 pm

I really hate to see the near-elimination of hard copies of books, handwritten notes, etc. All these electronic things. There’s something to be said, and enjoyed, about holding a book in your hands, flipping actual pages, highlighting stuff, making litle notations in a tangible way, even sometimes with different colored ink.

Technology is good, but we are losing so many good things about books, language skills, eye contact, patience, delayed gratification. Crazy time. Thank God I don’t have any young kids today.

cool and collected

September 19th, 2013
2:11 pm

I just left a lecture about “Millennials” and it was interesting. Bottom line: Baby Boomers made the gen-X and now M’s the way they are. Every little Johnnie is a saint, every Maryjane is beautiful. the red ink will scare them on their test paper, and if the kids do poorly in school…before the kid would get the parent’s disgust; now the parents bark at the teachers. Also every sport is truly competitive and all participants get a little trophy, even if they sucked and lost the game 50-0.

catlady

September 19th, 2013
2:26 pm

This is why the digital premium AJC is not satisfactory. But for some,of,us, no paper version is available. ; p

A

September 19th, 2013
2:42 pm

The digital AJC is terrible. The iPhone app looks tired and out of date, and the iPad one is not much better. The website looks like an amateur designed it. Take a look at The Washington Post or New York Times’ sites to see how it’s done. Those look very professional and polished. The AJC looks like a high school paper put it together.

motherjanegoose

September 19th, 2013
2:57 pm

@ Young Lady…I rarely blame a person when technology is involved. Kind of hard to wrestle with someone when I am on a country road with my GPS and it is not working, nor do I have cell service. I do mumble TOLD YOU SO to my husband ( not there) who thinks I am OCD about carrying a paper map or atlas in the car at all times. He rarely travels with me and thus I have to be prepared. I often wish he would be beside me when I have to crack open the map book or stop and ask for directions…WAIT that would never happen if he WERE with me. Better to be confident about being lost than to ask directions from ANYONE….haha!

jarvis

September 19th, 2013
3:02 pm

@Ann, E-texts will not be any cheaper than books with all the contracts, suppliers, updates, consultants, etc. There is always lots of money that will change hands regardless of the method.

$150 is less than $700.
Don’t let the facts get in the way of your argument.

Ann

September 19th, 2013
3:56 pm

@ Jarvis – My argument is not based on the cost to students at one school mentioned by Theresa. I am talking about the overall cost to school systems, states and taxpayers in regards to E books vs. Textbooks. Experts do not agree on whether there will be cost savings or not. Some educators think the cost will be greater due to:
1. The technology expense, including but not limited to purchasing equipment for those who don’t have it. Both students and teachers would need to have eBook readers.
2. Expense of converting texts to e-format. That e material would have to meet state standards and we all know that varies from state to state. Whose paying for that and how are those costs passed on to the school and taxpayers? Will Georgia purchase E material written for Georgia standards?
3. Digital textbooks would require everyone to have a quality computer with Internet access.
4. Teachers have to be trained in the technology.
5. Maintenance for broken, misplaced, stolen, or defective technology.

Aside from that, publishers will find a way to make money. They will charge for annual updates.

jarvis

September 19th, 2013
8:27 pm

@Ann,

1. You can buy a single bare bones Kindle for $110 at retail. I can only imagine what the discount would be on several thousand.

2. Why would the process be to convert the texts to eBook rather than using texts created for eBook to begin with?

3. Why would everyone need a computer and Internet access? I thought we were talking about tablets loaded with texts at the school.

4. My sister taught my mom (a retired 8th Grade English teacher with no techincal capabilities at all) how to use a Kindle Fire in 20 minutes. It’s easier than a Promethean Board by leaps and bounds, and teachers have seem to grasp those with fairly little trouble.

5. I’d think not having to replace the paper and hardback every time curriculum changed would offset the maintenance costs and license fees on the technology. As for theft, it would take very little for a tablet to be produced in a way that it would be able to run nothing that wasn’t coded as a “textbook” rendering it worthless for other uses.

Ann

September 19th, 2013
11:07 pm

@ Jarvis – You are talking logic with some of your points. Schools, like the government, are big and bureaucratic. They don’t do “simple” well and they don’t do much cheap. And, they don’t always follow logic. There are true examples of schools that paid a lot more for books than what you or I could purchase them for on our own at retail because they go through their “approved” vendors that have contracts with the system – not necessarily the cheapest market price.

There are plenty of textbooks that are not available yet on e-readers. And, the majority of children’s books are not in that format. I don’t think we are going to have all new textbooks created just for e-book that do not involve at least some conversions from current textbooks. My point is that someone will be paying for that. This will be a gradual process. Amazon only converts texts that they think they will make plenty of sales and profits on.

These things are not going to be provided without profit being made by the companies. Textbook publishers and school content controllers are not going to sell their e-versions that will replace print textbooks in a manner that leads to a big profit decline. These are huge companies and they certainly aren’t stupid. Phasing out textbooks may save trees, but the jury is certainly out as to whether it saves the public any money.

As far as training, that includes how they will be used in the classroom and other issues, such as how does the teacher know that the students have the right book in front of them on the e-reader during class? A frequent complaint on the school blog is that technology and other things are implemented without adequate preparation and training. The e-reader texts will have to be replaced, downloaded, etc. every time an update occurs.

I just would like to see an actual, up-front breakdown of all direct and indirect costs. So, if the downloading is done at school rather than at home, as you say, are the schools then hiring someone to download as many as 15-20 books on each e-reader for the thousands of students in the school system for that school year? What is the life span of the devices? Of the battery? How often will each need to be replaced? These devices need to be charged every couple of days. What happens when the batteries are dead during class? Are all students going to come to class with the devices always charged? Are the devices being charged at school or at home? And, if at school, what is the cost of thousands of devices being charged? What kind of electrical setup is needed for that?

HB

September 20th, 2013
8:15 am

Ann, of course companies are not going to aim for profit decline, but revenue decline does not equal profit decline. Producing an ebook is cheaper than producing a hard copy. Let’s say it costs half as much. They can sell it for 30% less than before and still make a higher profit — much higher if that price cuts also leads to selling more books than before.

I have a hard time imagining that the public couldn’t at least break even on costs and end up with a better, always up-to-date product that reduces little kids’ backpack weight (I’m convinced my neck and shoulder problems are largely due to carrying around a 30 lb backpack and a trombone for years as a child). Of course a good system should be put in place for doing all this, but it’s certainly not that difficult for schools to develop a program that works well. As for devices always being charged, if required to be done at home, I’m sure a kid will forget now and then, but kids have forgotten to bring their textbooks to class on occasion too. These aren’t difficult problems to solve.

2 day diet

September 25th, 2013
12:56 am

Paper vs digital: Are there benefits to paper textbooks that schools are missing? | Momania: A Blog for Busy Moms
2 day diet http://www.naturalslimming.biz

2day diet

September 25th, 2013
3:15 am

Paper vs digital: Are there benefits to paper textbooks that schools are missing? | Momania: A Blog for Busy Moms
2day diet http://meizitangsli.exteen.com/20130923/i-think-that-using-a-aid-system-is-totally-crucial-to-long