Four-day school weeks in Georgia?

I’m still making my way though all the education bills the House and Senate voted on yesterday, so I promise to post an update later this morning on some key legislation.
In the meantime, I thought you’d be interested in knowing four-day school weeks could soon become a fixture in Georgia’s public schools.
The House passed HB 193, which would change the 180-day school year requirement so that students must attend school for the number of equivalent hours. (The vote was 155-1 for those of you keeping track.)
Schools could set up four-day school weeks if they want. Or they could stretch the school week to six days and have kids meet for fewer hours each day. They could reconfigure the school year so students don’t the full summer off.
The bill still needs to pass the Senate, but what do you think of the idea? How would you reconfigure the school year?

40 comments Add your comment

N.Ga. Teacher

March 13th, 2009
10:30 am

The school year desperately needs reconfiguration for several reasons. First is financial. By lengthening school days by one hou and KEEPING the 5-day weeks, only 153 days (versus 180 days) would be needed to fulfill the hours requirement. That would mean summer break from Memorial Day to Labor Day!!! Imagine the savings in air conditioning! ! Add to that the lower bus costs, cafeteria costs, etc. Teenagers would be able to work summer seasons to earn money for college.
Second, kids and school employees would not experience the great burnout they now do. If you are not in education, you have no idea how tired, cynical, and worn out we get by late May after starting the previous July. Right now, teens shut down after Spring Break due to the burnout of having been in school since the first of August. In April, bad behaviors begin to shoot up as teens get stressed, which in turn stresses teachers and administrators. Teens start to skip school and even drop out in April or May. Third, longer summers provide teachers with the chance to attend colleges and universities to obtain further training or graduate degrees. As things are now, in the South, most teachers have to report back to school at the start of August or even late July!!!! This sounds insane to any northern or western teacher, but it is true!!! That eliminate most university summer sessions, which go through mid-August, as possible learning opportunities.

Some would argue that the longer school day would place too great an academic burden on kids. Most of these kids are not taking academic courses all day. They fit in gym, construction, art, and many other electives. They also get a lunch period and perhaps a break time. Teaching methods nowadays involve more student interaction, so kids are NOT listening to teachers drone on for hours.

The four-day week would involve lengthening the school day but cutting the number of weekdays to 4 instead of 5. This would also be great, but has the disadvantage of also barging into air-conditioning season. Many parents would greatly resent having to find daycare for their kids. It does not solve the problem of the seemingly endless school year, and put teenagers on the street for 3-day party binges.


March 13th, 2009
11:49 am

I love the idea. Eight hour schools days, 4 days a week. Sounds like a winner to me.


March 13th, 2009
12:42 pm

N.Ga Teacher, I like your idea. I remember as a kid actually starting to get bored with summer and being eager when it was time for school to start back, but now that I’m a teacher with only 7-8 weeks off, there’s not time to relax into boredom.


March 13th, 2009
12:52 pm

Ever been in a school building in the summer? The air is usually on so that wouldn’t save anything. However, I do think that 8 hour days, 4 days a week is a wonderful idea.


March 13th, 2009
1:07 pm

I attended private school for several years and to save money they would never have lights on in the hallways and bathroom lights were on motion sensors. Also they would keep the temperature warm enough that you had to wear a sweater in the winter and cool enough in the summer that you were just not sweating while sitting. Most of the time the teachers just took us outside under a shade tree to do our lessons. When the school closed at 4pm, that heat dropped to 40 degrees to prevent freezing and AC was completely turned off. Turn off lights, turn off ALL computers, printers, copiers, etc.. when you leave your classroom. Post the electric and gas bills in the hallway and show a bar graph encouraging everyone to drop energy costs from month to month. Kids will find it exciting!!


March 13th, 2009
5:54 pm

4 day weeks will never happen. School=babysitter. We can’t keep the kids’ attention (much less the teachers’ stamina) for the current 8-3 (student) schedule. No idea how we could handle it physically. Teachers are not allowed to sit down! Or be quiet! Our country kids are on the bus starting at 6:30, and exiting at 4:30. Why not just install cots? Many of the parents would be happy about that.


March 13th, 2009
5:57 pm

Lori, we have been doing what you suggest for 4 years now. Some weeks the school NeVEr warms up. We don’t allow any heat in the halls, bathrooms, or central gathering place. I have measured the hallway outside my room (one of the innermost) at 52 degrees at noon (winter only)! But we are saving all kinds of money!


March 13th, 2009
6:49 pm

All this bill does is give individual school systems more flexibility in their schedule. No big deal.

However, if my school system tried to extend the school day, I would be against it. I just don’t think the average student’s attention span would allow a longer day.

high school teacher

March 13th, 2009
7:56 pm

Catlady, our system does the same thing. It was 60 degrees in the cafeteria during the last cold snap. Pretty sad when you have to wear a jacket to eat lunch! But hey, we’re saving lots of money!


March 14th, 2009
11:48 am

Catlady, personally I think it is ridiculous that our public schools have to have ANY budget shortfalls. Schools should be fully funded first before ANY pet projects or nonsense that our politicians get through congress. It is DEAD WRONG that teachers or students have to sacrifice because our elected officials dont bring in the money that is needed to get the job done right. If the govt could guarantee that funding would be managed properly and honestly, I would have no problems paying more in property taxes, sales tax, whatever. I just want our school system to be top notch. :)

high school teacher

March 14th, 2009
10:11 pm

Lori for governor!


March 14th, 2009
10:17 pm

I agree with Lori that education funding should receive the highest of priorities. In the state budget, by percentage it does. However, it is still not fully funded. To top that off, the Republicans want to control tax collections from Atlanta rather than locally. They finally backed off the change in Homestead Exemption, but they’ll be back.


March 14th, 2009
10:23 pm

As for the bill authorizing flexibility in scheduling, this is no help at all. School systems are not going to reduce learning time. Without doubt, time on task is one of the most important factors affecting student learning. Why in the world would we even consider reducing that? Before you get your calculators out to prove me wrong, what the proposed law does not take into consideration is the fact that many schools provide more time for learning than the minimum requires. We do this because we know that it is important for students. Our school day, for instance, provides nearly 400 minutes a day for learning. This bill doesn’t even come close to providing an equivalent amount of time.


March 15th, 2009
10:06 am

Good grief, it’s not a funding issue, it is a SPENDING issue.

When school systems spend $25+ million to build a new school instead of $5 million to renovate the existing school, and then turn around and shut down the existing school when the new school is built, it is a SPENDING issue.

When schools pay premium wages for PE teachers with Phd’s, pay bonuses for libriarians to be NBCT, or pay in-school suspension teachers (i.e. football coach) in excess of $90k per year, it is a SPENDING issue.

When schools buy the latest cure dejour program, only to discard it at year’s end, it is a SPENDING issue.

The list goes on and on, but you get the point. Schools have been spending like a drunken sailor on shore leave for quite some time. Now, with the economic downturn, tax dollars are a precious commodity and schools must uphold their fiduciary responsibility to ensure the taxpayer gets his money’s worth.


March 16th, 2009
10:14 am

I’m a strong advocate of the **4 DAY SCHOOL WEEK**. Of course, it’s not perfect, but it offers solutions to several problems associated with our present day public schools. Moreover, this schedule provides for proactive measures to address future problems. For example, it is highly likely that we will face more energy crises in the near future. We should make adjustments now to save on transportation costs, etc., instead of waiting until our backs are against the wall.

The main opposition to this schedule involves the parent/daycare issue. Public schools can no longer afford to be thought of as day care. In those states that have changed to the **4 DAY SCHOOL WEEK** the parents made the adjustment without many problems. Even academic achievement was not adversely affected.

It’s time for this change. We are still trying to operate public schools with a 19th century model. We should reconfigure the school calendar to go year-round, 9 weeks in and 2 weeks out, with a ** 4 DAY SCOOL WEEK**. We need to progress into the 21st century, along with the rest of our society.


March 16th, 2009
12:00 pm

Lee, the “spending” issue should be addressed. I was talking with my mom who is a teacher as well about “spending” she agrees that their really isnt that much thought when money is spent. Smart boards for every classroom. They are just a gimmick. Why do kids need to be able to touch the screen instead of just using chalk?? Those dry erase markers cost tons as well. I would rather give that money to better curriculum or even to pay top dollar for top teachers. “Cure dejour program” thats funny and true. This Sitton spelling program that my son has at school…… how much is a simple list of spelling words. FREE!!! Here is a list…. now memorize it!! how hard is that?? When I was in college, we we taught how to make up our OWN curriculums, OWN worksheets, OWN lessons for the class that we had. We had to keep modifying it every year for the type of class that we had. There is not one size fits all. Yes, the first few years were extremely hard to make up stuff from scratch, I made up worksheets everyday. But then you started to mix and match depending on the makeup of the students. It was kinda fun. :) Yes, this is more work and more time spent for the teachers, but just pay THEM instead of corporations for their gimmicky products. But this is all just opinions and ideas I am not saying that I am right. :)


March 25th, 2009
2:46 pm

I’m sorry but I think you all have it wrong… it’s like everyone is looking everywhere but the obvious. The public school system spends almost $8,000 per student per year. Yet we are the ranked behind some third world countries as far as education is concerned; and Georgia is the second worst state in the country! I home school my son and spent $700 on school supplies and curriculum this year. He is 5 and started writing when he was 3 spelling and reading at 4 and his memorization is outstanding! He has 14 spelling words a week and hasn’t missed one yet.I spend roughly 2 and a half hours with him a day we go year round but take November and December off and then a month in the summer when we go on vacation and expand our garden.The problem as I see it is three fold. 1.)The teachers don’t care and they aren’t held to a stringent accountability. If they don’t have a passion for children and a heart for teaching they should be fired. 2.) the students aren’t given enough one on one time with the teacher. I have read reports where public school children get an average of 7 minutes of one on one time with a teacher PER WEEK!. If a child is to learn he/she has to develop a love for learning. This means it needs to fun and challenging. Which brings me to my last point. 3.)Children learn differently, each child and differently at different times in their life. When children are young they do well with reading or listening to information and then regurgitating that information when the correct question is presented. as they get a little older they like to figure out HOW things work.cause and effect that sort of thing. and then in high school they like to be challenged and also asked WHY do things happen and how to get the answer, or how to make a change. The problem with Public Schooling is that they force all children to learn at the elementary stage. The government and the school board are really impressed with high test scores because the thought is “if the child regurgitating the information correctly then they must be smart.” When the more correct thinking is “if we teach correct learning habits and foster a love of learning in general then the children won’t stop learning they will increase in their hunger for knowledge. Money in or out, time in the class room or out of the classroom isn’t going to be effective until the fundamentals are changed.

Chemistry Dude

April 24th, 2009
3:49 pm

Response to Honor’s post:

I agree with you on most of your points. We do spend between 4 and 8k on each child, depending on the system in question. Most student’s only get a minimal amount of one on one time with teachers. All students do learn differently. However, your general, sweeping statement that teacher’s don’t care and aren’t held accountable was not very well thought out. I teach and have for some years now. I’ve known teacher’s who didn’t care and teachers who did. Those who don’t care move on or are eventually fired. However, all teachers are held accountable to testing data of their students. I disagree with the testing methods by which we currently measure students, but the state tests currently given are NOT simply regurgitation of information. All of the tests I give in Chemistry are based on higher order thinking skills and the state exams students must take tests them on their ability to apply concepts to new problems. The tests are not perfect, but they are better than no measuring device at all.

Research tells us that students learn better when provided with one on one tutoring that is tailored to their learning style. My own four children are being homeschooled at present. No one can deny that homeschooling, when administered by a capable parent or tutor, is many orders more academically effective than public school. However, public school is the only option most parents can provide to their children and by its very nature is a group learning environment. How do you propose we accomplish home shool type results in a traditional school environment? Hire a teacher for each student? In my opinion, each student should have two teachers AT HOME who supplement those much needed one on one hours they don’t get in public school. We call them parents. It is simply logistically impossible for a teacher to properly, individually educate each of their 150 students per year without the full, earnest and dedicated efforts of the parents of each student. In my anecdotal experience, the majority of parents want the best education for their kids, but are not willing to PROVIDE it for them by the work and diligence of their own hands in cooperation with the school system and teachers.

The Fine Arts

July 28th, 2009
4:11 pm

Some schools, such as the one I teach at, have 7 courses everyday. Having one extra day as a weekend would definitely help students in our schools focus and actually accomplish valuable work without the stress of having to finish 7 classes worth of weekend work in 2 days.. Not to mention, the extra one hour of school will barely be noticeable if it spread out as about 10 extra minutes per class (for all 7 classes).

Besides, at this point in our economy, shouldn’t we be trying to do everything we can? Obviously, what ever we are doing now is not cutting it, we have to move on and try out other solutions. In all honesty, we really don’t have much to lose. But we do have tons to gain.

I certainly hope Sonny Perdue doesn’t stall before he makes this a state wide law.


July 29th, 2009
12:04 pm

We have children who are on a bus 3 hours out of a school day. If school hours are extended, it will affect the children. Educational budgets are the last that should be cut. I have a child care learning center with a Georgia Funded Pre-K Class and I have been doing this for 21 years. The children need year round school. I believe the delinquency rate would be greatly reduced if we went to school year round. The children forget so much information during the summer months and the older children just sit around playing their Wii. Too many of our children are left unattended when school is out as it is. Unattended children can get into lots of trouble. I agree that teachers don’t make enough money, but I have found that most people who go into teaching these days are just going into it because they have so many days off, as well as benefits, they are not teaching because of the children. IT IS TOO SAD!!! That’s why we have so many complaints about our educational system.


January 4th, 2010
11:59 pm

Please avoid comments such as “teachers who don’t care.” As a hard-working teacher I find that to be very disheartening. Are there a few bad apples? Yes. But a lot of us are doing the best we can with the resources we’ve got.

As for the freedom for school districts, I support that. Change is good. Let’s shake it up somehow.


February 3rd, 2010
12:42 pm

its a very stupid idea


February 3rd, 2010
12:43 pm

too much money goes into it and you forget what you just learned


February 3rd, 2010
12:44 pm

teachers obvisly dont care as you can see i forgot how to spell because of this change


February 4th, 2010
11:58 am

we should ahve 4 days because i said so-_-”


February 25th, 2010
8:47 pm

I have a few questions that I think one of ya’ll could answer for me. I live in effingham county GA, and just heard today that they are considering making the children go to school 4 days a week next year instead of 5. I understand times are tight right now and budgets are being cut everywhere but in our schools? My main concern is we are so low in testing wouldn’t this make our testing scores lower? kids cand catch on in 5 days what makes people think they will succeed in 4? Also child care is 2 expensive I have one child in public school and another starting next year at this time between after school care and day crae I spend $520.00 a month, i kept think once my youngest starts public schools I will save about 300.00 a month but by having the children take an extra day off school next year I will only be saving $100.00 a month because it would cost me $200.00 extra dollars a month to put them both some where on those days. As a single mom I can hardly afford child care as it is and to image I have to keep paying it, my pay check isn’t getting bigger and child care isn’t getting any less. There are to many parents out there now struggling to pay child care so they can have a job and now the state wants to makes us pay more? I am very worried about all of this. I have a child who is smart as can be she makes straight A’s and is in the gifter program I am very worried that if we drop a day off of the school week her grades will fall. I am looking into her future and I want her to be all she can be and I want her to be able to get a GREAT job doing what she loves but in order to get that job she will need to go to a great college and be able to do well. I would like if someone could give me some information on this so I can be better informed.
Thank you.

GA Mom

March 1st, 2010
11:01 am

Many of the comments before mine bear a lot of weight and those in charge of making the decisions should listen carefully.
One comment stuck in my head and continues to. The fact that between 4 and 8K are spent per child per year is astounding! I spent less than that last year to send my child to private school, where he was in a classroom of 14 students and learned more than what the public schoold presently teach. In private school, my child took more subjects than what is currently taught in public school.
In public school, my children sit in classrooms that are 25-30 students each. Also in those classrooms are children who do not speak English, so the teachers must take time with those students. It does bother me that my child gets absolutely no time with their teacher. The teachers spend the majority of their time teaching to the CRCT which must be passed by every child, that they don’t take the time to “TEACH”.
I would like to see the voucher program (which so many of our government seem to abhore) initiated. I have a strong suspicion that you would see a large majority of parents enroll into private schools. Perhaps this would cause the public school system to make positive changes. Not just ones that seem to save a little money here and there are the children/parent’s expense.
I’m just sayin’…


March 8th, 2010
6:29 pm

As a pre-k teacher i would say that extending the day even by 1 hour would a terrible thing unless they change the requirements for pre-k. I have my kids from 8am until 2:30pm. The kids can barely handle this. I would be all for 4 day weeks for the kids giving the teachers a work day to prep for the next week. If they were to extend the day by one hour i would have to suggest having half day pre-k classes and having a morning and afternoon class this will also allow more kids to attend pre-k but extending the day would make these 4 and 5 year old burnout a lot faster. As it is by friday they are crazy and are driving us crazy.


March 9th, 2010
9:42 pm

What happen to the lottery money that is supposed to go to help with the school’s? Instead of building new ones fix and clean up old ones.My grandkids get off bus now at 4:30 so if they go to 4 day week they will be getting home at 5:30. I think it will exhaust the kid’s and the teacher’s as well.Let the hour’s stay same. Let them try the 9 week on 2 week’off schedule and see how that would work for a year or two.


March 9th, 2010
10:07 pm

If gov is so concerned about children’s education and budget cuts why not cut all the study habit of frogs,fish,turtles and any other animal that they can think of to spend it on instead of our kids that are going to be the one’ that are to suffer because of all the stupid things that the the government can come up with to put money in their pockets. I don’t see or hear about any of them getting lay off’s or drops in their pension or their bonous. I think that they even get bigger bonouses. People need to stand up for their kid’s rights and their own rights. Kid’s need to have time to be a kid and not let gov try to make them 20 years old at 5 years old.


March 11th, 2010
2:00 pm

Georgia is already on the bottom in rankings with schools across the country. The US already spend less time in the class rooms that most industrialized nations. Many of these nations have year round school. No wonder we keep falling behind academicaly to the rest of the world. We as a nation will pay dearly for having an under educated society. More and more counries will be surpassing the U.S. not only in education, but economically, because the educated workforce will be from abroad. This defintely take us in the opposite direction we should be going to improve.


March 13th, 2010
11:53 am

It just galls me to hear the teachers on this site complain about how tired they get and how they get tired of wacthing the kids at school. For them i say..”go get a different job”.
also where is your pity for kids who ride the bus to rural areas and will be leaving home at 7am and not getting home until around 5pm. i feel bad for the kids and parents who have no place to take their kids on fridays. I think teachers have it too easy, come on over to healthcare and work some 12-hr shifts and then you can complain.


April 12th, 2010
11:28 am

The 4-day school week would be great if this were still the 1950’s. Since it’s not, you’ll find that most parents are at work during the day… FIVE DAYS A WEEK. How is that going to affect the normal household? I’ll tell you how. People are going to have to spend their hard earned money on daycare and transportation that they haven’t budgeted for – thus taking even more of the working families’ money than the idiots in government are already taking.
Terrible idea – unless you’re going to use the taxes I ALREADY PAY to fund transportation and daycare for that extra day.
What a bunch of idiots!!!

Alex Smith

April 25th, 2010
4:16 pm

I think the 4 day school week with work perfectly. This will help with transportation costs and lunchroom purchases (Buying more food supplies). Adding one hour to our 4 day school week should meet the requirement that we have had for many years. I also think this will be better for students. I believe that kids are in school to much as it is anyway. Education is very important, even I agree with that, but that doesn’t mean that students should be at school 24/7. This could also even help to prevent many drop outs from happening.The long school hours and days play a big role in many of our drop outs. I think even increasing the summer break for memorial day to labor day would help out greatly with transportation costs and lunch costs. Everyone is going to have to remember that the economy is in crisis, we need to help out with the costs everyway we can, even if your rich. If people say that education is so important then why are we having people protesting against it. It’s not like we’re ending school period. Who knows, this could be in effect for only a couple of years. What’s the big deal? Can we not just be happy that we our students are still getting a good education.Come on, it’s only one day.

Alex Smith

April 25th, 2010
4:19 pm

I think that if they don’t want to do the 4 day school week then they just need to stick with what they’re doing now and just cut some things i guess.

Alex Smith

April 25th, 2010
4:20 pm

But I think 4 day school week will work just as good.


May 19th, 2010
7:54 pm

Teachers still have a paying job bus drivers lunch room and all other staff will have to find jobs. It is wrong 4 everyone to think in this way. What are we going to do we can not work 4 days a week and pay our bills and put food on the table


May 19th, 2010
8:08 pm

when you have 469 eating free
103 reduced
enrollment 1 school 967
this may be the only food a child will eat is at school what is wrong with you people in GA. Welfare single parents one parent working is what I see in this pic.


May 26th, 2010
10:58 am

All of you who are against this are not thinking about the long term effects. I am a Student at groves high school at the moment. but because of the school days being as long as they are now Im already considering jus leaving and etting my GED. I mean you put us in here for 7 hr a day and expect us to pay attention all 7 hours. Oh big deal we get 25 minutes a day to Eat lunch and then we gotta rush back to class. NO ONE . exept for the extremely good kids that can handle all that boredom are passing. If you make the school week shorter . 1 that saves money and 2 it will take a lot of stress off of us students. And i personally know the feeling of 1 30 in the afternoon on a wednsday. i jus stop paying attention all together. But that wednsday could be like a friday if we reduce the week to 4 days. and i would have less stress and do a lot better, and im not a bad kid. i do my work. so i know if im getting bored then you know the brats in the class are definetly giving up. Just like the school system is giving up on us………..


September 14th, 2010
10:04 pm

Hi everyone,
I recently graduated from high school and I am now in college because I am fortunate enough to get that far in my education. I would like to point out some problems to these solutions that people have given. To those who said we should keep it a 5 day week and take off from memorial day until labor day, let me remind you, one issue for many years, even while I was in school, was that children could not retain all of the information from the year before during the 3 month summer vacation. How do you expect them to retain information for close to 4 months? To those who said that the 4 day week would be perfect, you really do have to think of those who cannot afford to send their children to daycare. I was fortunate enough in life that I never had to go to daycare, however I know a lot of single parents who cannot even afford after school care until they get off work at 8 p.m. let alone an extra whole day of it. To those who seem to think that the 4 day school week will benefit the kids and keep them from getting bored from the week think again. I know for a fact, being a child that had A.D.H.D. it was almost impossible for me to ever concentrate at school passed 12 p.m. How do we expect kids to last until 5? That is just stupid. To those who think that a 4 day week will some how help with children misbehaving, think again. Children are always energized. They need time to get the energy out of their system. To have longer days will not help this problem. Also if school goes until 5 how are kids going to be able to play sports? I know not every kid plays sports but how are the kids going to take part in after school clubs or other activities? are they going to stay at school until seven or eight every night? Honestly I personally think that the best way to save money is for the school systems to look at their spending. I know that we are now trying to make everything up to date in the classrooms, but I can guarantee that some things in classrooms are unnecessary. Smartboards especially. Each smartboard costs about $5000 and half the time teachers don’t know how to even use them properly. By the way what happened to overhead projectors? have we really gotten that lazy. There is also this other thing called chalk. It can actually be very useful when it comes to teaching a class. I know its a bit outdated but it is a lot cheaper and has the same affect on children. You can even get colored chalk to make it more interesting. As a kid I can remember being so excited when you got picked to go write on the board. Even when I was in high school teachers barely let us touch the smartboards because they were scared we would damage them. As someone also pointed out above we should get rid of dry erase boards. #1 they give students headaches if you use them too much. #2 the markers are more expensive. #3 CHALK works just as well. I would also like to say that as some of you bash teachers and say they are not doing their job, that is false. Sure there may be a teacher here or there who doesn’t actually enjoy their job, however most teachers love children and love to teach. It is a shame that the teachers do not get more one on one time with students, however usually if you ask for help they will help you. My younger sister for example who is currently in a public elementary school, was having trouble with her math. After my mother noticed she was doing poorly in the class, she asked the teacher if she could help my little sister. The teacher let my sister come in once a week after school so she could personally help my younger sister understand the concepts. If that does not prove that there are good, caring teachers out there I don’t know what will. I really thought that the idea of the motion detector lights in the bathrooms was good. Another thing to cut costs would be to not update textbooks every year, or every other year. If the states bought new text books every 3 years or every 4 years I bet they could save a bundle. Things do not go out of date that fast. Another great idea from above was to not build an all new school but to add on to an existing school. I was fortunate enough to go to a private high school, but they are slowly trying to fix the school and make it nicer. Instead of building an all new school they are knocking down and rebuilding sections at a time. This keeps them out of debt but still gives us a new and updated building to use. I’m sure that there are little things that each school could do in order to save a little bit of money here and there. Even though it is a child’s dream to have school only 4 days a week I do not believe it is the best idea. I think we should keep things as they are and just try to cut down here and there in order to save.